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SEVEN BAPTISMS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT

by Dr. Fred Wittman

II. The Baptism by John

Mt.3:1-11; Mk.1:4-8; Lk. 3:3-17; Acts 18:25 cf. 19:3-5

UNTO REPENTANCE--FORGIVEN OF SINS

“Now in those days John the Baptizer emerged alongside in the desert of /Judea, proclaiming as an herald and saying, You& all be repenting! For the Kingdom of the Heavens stands drawn near. For this is The+ One declared by the prophet Isaiah, saying,[Isa. 40:3] A 0call of one crying out in the desert, You& all prepare the way of 0Lord! Continually make &His beaten paths straight! And the same John was customarily having his clothing from camel’s hair and a belt made of a skin around his /hips; but his /nourishment customarily was locusts and wild honey. At that time Jerusalem$ and all /Judea and all the surrounding region of the Jordan journeyed out to[the face of] him. And they were being baptized in the Jordan by him and were publicly confessing their /sins. But after beholding many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for the baptism by him, he said to them, O offspring of vipers, who indicated to you& to successfully flee from the imminent anger? Therefore produce fruits worthy of the repentance! And never suppose to say within yourselves! With reference to 0father we have /Abraham. For I am saying to you&, ‘The God is able to raise up children to Abraham out of these /stones. In fact also already the ax is lying at[the face of] the root of the living trees. Therefore every living tree not producing intrinsically good fruit is being cut out and it is being cast into 0fire.’ On the one hand I myself baptize you& in water unto repentance. But on the other hand The One coming after[in back of] me is stronger than myself, Whose /thongs I am not adequate to bear on my person, He Himself shall baptize you& by means of 0Holy Spirit and |by means of | fire, Whose /winnowing shovel |is| in His /hand and He shall throughly cleanse His /threshing-place. And He shall gather together the wheat into the barn, but He shall utterly burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire” (Mt. 3:1-12 APT).

    What does baptism mean to you? How does your meaning compare with The God’s meaning as described and used in Scripture? It was noted in the Introduction to this series:

The word “baptism” is the translation of the Greek noun βάπτισμα (Báhp-teesmah). It comes from the verb βαπτίζω (bahptéez0) translated “baptize” and means “to make whelmed, (i.e. to fully wet).” βαπτίζω comes from the root word βάπτω (báhpt0) which means “to whelm, i.e. to cover wholly with a fluid.” It is translated “to dip.” βάπτω is also used to indicate the act of dying, “to dye,” that is to dip a cloth or material into a vat of liquid to change its color. The cloth is not changed, only the appearance and color is changed. However baptism is an inner change producing action whereby there are seven factors in connection with each of the seven baptisms.

    The second baptism mentioned in The New Testament from an historical stand point is the baptism by John the Baptizer, who was born in the month of Tammuz (June-July) 5 B.C. John began his ministry, as forerunner of The Christ (Messiah) and herald of the Kingdom, in the Judean desert in the spring of A.D. 29. Arhkh-éhlah-ohs was reigning as Ethnarch of Judea, Idumea (Eedou-maíah), and Samaria in the stead of King Herod, the Great. In order for The Christ to set up His Kingdom, all Israel must repent of their sins and commit trust to The Messiah whose coming was imminent in order to be forgiven of their sins and usher in the Kingdom.

    Conjure in your mind multitudes of Hebrew sinners, leaving Jerusalem and cities, walled towns, and unwalled villages of Judea, going into the desert of Judea to gather to hear a prophet, clad in a camel hair garment and belt made of animal skin around his hips, crying out in the wilderness. No advance advertisement, only word of mouth and movement by The Holy Spirit! It had been four centuries since Israel had a prophet. The people had been taught about the prophets in their synagogues. Now they were about to experience the proclamation as an herald by an unusual prophet of The God who had been raised up to be the forerunner of The promised Messiah. Religious leaders and teachers of The Law heard the news of the emerging prophet and followed the crowd to find out what was happening.

    The religious leaders of the Jews, the scribes and Pharisees (hypocrites) and Sadducees (including the priests), had mislead the people and in The God’s eyes were vipers (Mt. 3:7; 12:34; 23:33). Sin had been running wild and had reached its climax. Israel must needs repent and bring forth fruits or deeds worthy of repentance because the anger of The Lord is imminent (Mt. 3:7,10). John baptized those, who had repented and demonstrated their seriousness about repentance, in the desert of Judea in the waters of Jordan (Mk. 1:5). But he denounced the Pharisees and Sadducees as an offspring of vipers and asked them, Who indicated to you to successfully flee from the imminent anger? Therefore produce fruits worthy of repentance.

Then two years after His baptism, The Lord Jesus spoke of John the Baptizer in this way.

“For I am saying to you&, Not one prophet among |ones+| begotten of women is greater than John the Baptizer. But the least+ one in the Kingdom of The God is greater than he. And all the people[same race and language] |who | heard him and the tax collectors justified The God by being baptized with reference to the baptism of John. But the Pharisees and the lawyers rejected[set aside] the desired will of The God for themselves by not being baptized by him” (Lk. 7:28,29 APT).

The apostle Peter expressed what is the desired will of The God in his Second Epistle.

“The Lord is not being slack[slow(ness)] with reference to the promise, as some are deeming slackness[slow(ness)]. On the contrary He is longsuffering unto us, not desirously willing for any& to perish, but on the contrary, for all& to make room for repentance” (2 Pet. 3:9 APT).

Yet the Pharisees and the lawyers rejected that desired will of The God and as a result they perished.


    What do The Scriptures recount to us concerning this baptism in relation to the seven factors examined in each of the seven baptisms recorded in The New Testament?

A. THE PARTICULAR MESSAGE PROCLAIMED

The particular message that was proclaimed by John the Baptizer had two aspects, a positive action and a negative reason.

    1. The First Aspect calling for positive action has two parts:

a. The first part of the message calling for action is, “You& all be repenting! For the Kingdom of the Heavens stands drawn near” (Mt. 3:2 APT). “You all be repenting!” is one Greek word in the present imperative, μετανοέω. It is a compound word made up of νοέω which means “to comprehend with the mind” prefixed with μετα which means “after” as a preposition, but in composition it expresses change or difference. Thus it literally means change your comprehension or thinking and is used in the imperative mood to express command to change your mind about the way you are going and living so as change your direction, your principle, and your practice. In the aorist imperative plural, it was a military command to a marching army; in the USA, “About face!” or “To the rear, march!” In England, Australia, and other countries in the Kingdom it is equivalent to, “About turn.”

      Picture in your mind a Greek army of Spartans marching across a mesa to battle. All of a sudden, the commander sees a steep precipice ahead and recognizes the immediate danger to his troops; he calls out, “ Μετανοήσατε (metah-noh-áy-sah-teh)!” Unless each one changes his mind about the direction he is going, and reverses direction, he will plunge to his death over the precipice. The command is to repent, that is to change direction before it is too late. How appropriate this is to illustrate the spiritual meaning of repent! It is a likeness to The God’s command to mankind to repent of our sins and the way we are heading for eternity. Because, as Isaiah the prophet wrote, “All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way . . .” (Isa. 53:6). Each one is going down on the broad way that will plunge that one into eternal destruction unless direction is reversed (Mt. 7:13, 14).

“Enter& through the narrow gate! because the gate |is | wide and the way | is | spacious which is leading away unto the utter destruction[perishing]. And many are the ones entering through it. Because the gate |is| narrow and the way which is leading away unto the absolute life stands restricted with pressure. And few are the ones finding it” (Mt. 7:13, 14 APT).

It takes true repentance to get off the broad way that leads to utter destruction and to enter the narrow gate onto the narrow way leading to eternal absolute life. The Lord Jesus said, Without true repentance the result is to perish (Lk. 13:3,5). We must repent if we are to receive forgiveness of sins, but at the same time we also must act in committing trust to The Lord Jesus Christ. Upon the confession of sins baptism by John was the act which demonstrated true repentance on the part of the Jews who anticipated the imminent coming of The Messiah (The Christ).

b. The second part of the message is, “Commit trust unto The One coming after me, that is, unto Jesus, The Christ.” Not only was it absolutely necessary for the Jews in John’s day to repent and confess their sins but also at the same time to commit trust in The Coming One, The Messiah, The Lord Jesus Christ. The means to forgiveness of sins is like a two-sided coin. On the one side is repentance accompanied by confession of sins and on the other side is persistent committed trust to The Lord Jesus Christ. Luke records what Paul told the Jews in Ephesus, who had been discipled by Ahpohllōs and was acquainted only with the baptism of John (Acts 18:15),

“Actually John baptized a repentance 0baptism, saying to the people[same race and language] that they should commit trust unto The One coming after him, that is, unto Jesus, The Christ” (Acts 19:4 APT).

God reveals Truth from what is known to the unknown. The first aspect of this message given to Israel, ‘To repent acompanied by confessing sins’ looked forward to the next aspect of the message, ‘Commit trust unto The coming Christ.’ The God continually builds knowledge of The Truth by proclaiming hitherto unknown Truth upon known Truth. Thus the order is, ‘repentance must be prior to committed trust’ because the One Who is going to come could not have been visibly seen yet in order to be trusted, since the outward appearance of His entrance had not yet taken place. These Jewish people during John’s time had to repent even before The One upon Whom they were required to believe in, or commit trust upon, appeared on the scene.

These two parts form the same message of requirement as the requirement for Salvation by The Gospel of The Lord Jesus Christ: ‘Repent and Believe on (commit trust to) The Christ.’

2. The Second Aspect giving a negative reason for baptism unto repentance is to ‘Flee from the wrath to come.’

         John raised the question to the many religious leaders, the Pharisees and Sadducees, who came out in the desert to hear him, “ O offspring of vipers, who indicated to you& to successfully flee from the imminent anger?” (Mt. 3:7 APT). Now if John raised this question to the Pharisees (religionists), whose message was, Keep the Mosaic Law, and the Sadducees (priests), whose message was, ‘There is no resurrection,’ then these religious leaders must have heard the two-part message that John had given to those others who had responded to his message and came to him to be baptized unto repentance. This then, is also part of the message which John proclaimed. Should they not repent and commit trust on Him who should come after him? Indeed they should! And if they repent and commit trust on The Imminently Coming Messiah, then that action enables them to successfully flee from the imminent anger to be vented upon sinners.

B. A FAITH PROVEN (exercised) (Acts 19:4).

Paul’s explanation of the essence of John’s message was noted above.

“Actually John baptized a repentance 0baptism, saying to the people[same race and language] that they should commit trust unto The One coming after him, that is, unto Jesus, The Christ” (Acts 19:4 APT).

When John the Baptizer began proclaiming the Gospel of the Kingdom, he called upon his people, the children of Israel to prepare for the coming of The Christ, The Annointed One of The God, The Messiah, Jesus which means ‘Jehovah saves’. They were required to put their faith in Messiah who was coming, but had not yet been made visible to the nation at that time. Later to the multitude following him, John said, “Behold the Lamb of God” (Jn. 1:29). His message called upon them to prepare for and believe (commit trust) in Messiah’s imminent coming. In order to get ready they must repent and be baptized. (Today we can give a similar message: He is coming again and we need to be ready for His coming.)

C. AN ACTION PERFORMED (Mt. 3:8; Lk. 3:8-14).

There must be an action performed. John wanted to see proof of repentance in their lives before he baptized them. He wanted to see evidence brought forth. He expected each candidate to demonstrate one’s readiness for repentance by bringing forth fruits meet for repentance. And The Lord Jesus Christ wants us to be giving evidence of our relationship to Him, evidence of death to self, Sin, and the world (Gal. 2:20; 5:24; 6:14) before we go into the waters of baptism. In his Epistle to Galatians, Paul indicated that regenerated disciples are to be crucified together with Christ in three areas of one’s life: self, Sin, and the world.

“ I stand crucified together with Christ, but I absolutely live. No longer myself, but Christ absolutely lives in me. In fact what~ I now absolutely live in 0flesh, I absolutely live by means of 0faith^, |namely| the^ one of The Son of The God, Who loved me and delivered Himself over in my behalf” (Gal. 2:20 APT).

“Now the ones belonging to The Christ are crucified with reference to the flesh together with its sufferings and its passionate lusts” (Gal. 5:24 APT).

“But may it never be for myself to boast except in the cross of The Lord of ours, Jesus Christ, through Whom 0world is crucified to myself and myself to the world” (Gal. 6:14 APT).

The Lord Jesus Himself stipulated self denial and a cross experience in order to be his disciple and follow Him.

“And He was repeatedly saying to[the face of] all, If (and it is true) anyone determinedly wills to come after Me, he is to utterly deny himself! And he is to carry off his /cross daily! And he is to continually follow Me!” (Lk. 9:23 APT).

If we are to have a cross experience and die to self (the flesh), to Sin, and to the world, then we must be buried or cause a stench (as an unburied corpse), especially to The God. Paul stated in his Epistle to the Romans: “Or are you& ignorant that we, as many as were baptized into Christ Jesus, were baptized into the death of His? Therefore we are buried together with Him through the baptism into the death” (Rom. 6:3 APT). Since baptism is counted as a burial, should we not give evidence that we died to Sin, the flesh (self), and the world before being baptized, lest the baptizer commit spiritual homicide and the one being baptized consider oneself alive in Christ without having died to these three through a cross esperience?

When the crowds asked John the Baptizer, What therefore should we do? He answered,

“The one having two tunics[undergarments] is to impart to the one not having |one |! And the one having solid foods is continually to do in like manner! Then tax collectors also came to be baptized. And they said to[the face of] him, Teacher, what should we do? Then he said to[the face of] them, Stop exacting any more |tribute | than what stands ordered to you$! Then the warring+ ones also questioned him, saying, And ourselves, what should we do? And he said to[the face of] them, Never intimidate[lit.: shake violently] any[not one] one with violence to extort, neither falsely accuse! And be sufficed with your& /wages” (Lk. 3:11-14 APT).

In essence He told the people: Show that you are not selfish! Share clothes and food! Tax collectors, Stop overtaxing! Soldiers, Stop extorting and be content with your wages! John called for fruits meet for repentance. They wanted to know what to do (v. 10). So he told them. He wanted evidence of repentance when he baptized them. He expected action to back up their words. (So today there should be evidence of being dead to the flesh (self), Sin, and the world by those being baptized.)

D. A CONFESSION PRONOUNCED (Mt. 3:6; Mk. 1:5).

There must be a confession at baptism. Those who were being baptized by John were confessing their sins.

“And they were being baptized in the Jordan by him and were publicly confessing their /sins” (Mt. 3:6 APT).

“And all the Judea region and the Jerusalemites were journeying[in a steady stream] out to[the face of] him and all were being baptized by him in the Jordan river, publicly confessing for themselves their /sins” (Mk. 1:5 APT).

Each candidate publicly confessed his or her sins. (And just as each candidate to be baptized by John made a public confession, so there is to be a public confession by the disciples of The Lord Jesus Christ when they are baptized today.)

E. THE MEANING (OF BAPTISM) PROJECTED: unto Repentance!

Each of the seven baptisms has a distinct meaning. The baptism by John meant repentance for the candidate being baptized, for the baptizer, and for the crowd of onlookers.

“On the one hand I myself baptize you& in water unto repentance. But on the other hand The One coming after[in back of] me is stronger than myself, Whose /thongs I am not adequate to bear on my person, He Himself shall baptize you & by means of 0Holy Spirit and |by means of | fire” (Mt. 3:11 APT).

“John emerged in the desert baptizing and as an herald proclaiming a repentance 0baptism based upon 0forgiveness of sins” (Mk. 1:4 APT).

“And he came into all the surrounding region of the Jordan, as an herald proclaiming a repentance 0baptism based upon forgiveness of sins” (Lk. 3:3 APT).

In his sermon in the synagogue in Antioch of Peeseedéeah, Paul spoke of The Savior, Jesus, Who was proclaimed by John, “. . . and John as an herald proclaimed beforehand a repentance 0baptism to all the people of Israel before outward appearance of His /entrance” (Acts 13:24 APT).

“Actually John baptized a repentance 0baptism, saying to the people[same race and language] that they should commit trust unto The One coming after him, that is, unto Jesus, The Christ” (Acts 19:4 APT).

During the two years of John’s ministry (A.D. 29-31), Israelites repented of their sins to be prepared for the coming Kingdom of The Lord Jesus Christ, The Messiah. John himself referred to his baptism as “unto repentance.” Matthew, Mark, and Luke, all refer to the baptism by John as “a repentance baptism,” that is, this baptism means repentance has taken place by the participants and is evidenced by the change in their way of life: in direction, in principle, and in practice.

Finally, Paul used the grammatical function of the genitive of description in referring to the baptism by John as “a repentance baptism” two times in the Book of Acts. Therefore, all of these points indicate that the meaning of the baptism by John the Baptizer is repentance, which has been declared of themselves to have taken place in the lives of those being baptized.

F. THE INDICATION PRODUCED: Forgiven of Sins!

The Greek word translated “remission” in the Authorized Version is ’άφεσις which means “forgiveness, release.” It is the noun form of άφίημι which is translated “to forgive, to release, to abandon, to permit, to vacate,” depending upon the meaning expressed in the context.

“John emerged in the desert baptizing and as an herald proclaiming a repentance 0baptism based upon 0forgiveness of sins” (Mk. 1:4 APT).

“And he came into all the surrounding region of the Jordan, as an herald proclaiming a repentance 0baptism based upon forgiveness of sins” (Lk. 3:3 APT).

John preached the baptism of repentance for the remission or forgiveness of sins. When were their sins forgiven? Before or after baptism? Baptism did not wash their sins away (1 Pet. 3:21)! It only gave evidence that their sins were forgiven. So their sins were forgiven before their baptism. Their Baptism was based upon the fact that their sins were forgiven, not in order to get forgiveness of sins. Does baptism today provide forgiveness of sins? No! Does baptism today produce salvation? No! Is baptism necessary for regeneration? No! Absolutely not! Even though there are religious groups that teach such doctrine, Scripture does not bear out such teaching which is based upon Old Testament or Covenant teaching with New Testament exposure. John’s ministry may have given that indication to some, but it is not that case at all. [For deeper study and further examination of this subject refer to the paper BORN OF WATER to be added to our Website in the near future.] This baptism by John is only the second baptism in the progression of truth from one truth / baptism to another. The progressive revelation of Truth through the study of the other five New Testament baptisms will bear this out.

The baptism by John the Baptizer indicated that the participants repented of their sins which they confessed, committed trust to The Imminently Coming Messiah, The Christ, and have successfully fled from the imminent anger of The God. Therefore the life of sin is ended! Sins are forgiven! A new life serving The God is begun. That is what the people were indicating when they went into the waters of John’s baptism and exited to journey through life anew.

 G. AN IDENTIFICATION PROFESSED

The baptism of John identified the people of Israel whom he baptized with The One True God and the Kingdom of Heaven (Mt. 3:2) and marked them as those who awaited the imminent coming of The Christ, The Messiah (Acts 19:4).

“You& all be repenting! For the Kingdom of the Heavens stands drawn near” (Mt. 3:2 APT).

“Actually John baptized a repentance 0baptism, saying to the people[same race and language] that they should commit trust unto The One coming after him, that is, unto Jesus, The Christ” (Acts 19:4 APT).

The Baptism of John took place at the close of Israel’s relationship to The God under the law. Those Jews baptized by John were identified with the Kingdom of Heaven, identifying these Israelites as those who await the coming of The Christ (The Messiah) because not all Israel was awaiting the Messiah.

CONCLUSION:

    1. The Baptism by John is a baptism projecting the meaning that Repentance has been demonstrated and it indicates forgiveness of sins has been granted.

2. The Baptism by John took place at the close of Israel’s relationship to The God under the Mosaic Law. Those Jews baptized by John were identified with the Kingdom of Heaven, marking out those Israelites as those who await the coming of The Messiah, because not all Israel was awaiting the Messiah. Now we have two baptisms in the New Testament which refer to the Old Testament. One baptism referring to the initiation of a nation under The Law and the other baptism referring to and introducing the conclusion of The God’s dealing with the nation of Israel under The Law and introducing them to the new relationship with the Messiah.

3. Here we find an Old Testament action. [The New Testament did not take effect until after the Death of Christ (Heb. 9:16,17). Even though The Gospels are placed in the New Testament before His death, the New Covenant or New Testament took effect after He died.] This Old Testament action, the baptism by John, focuses upon a New Testament truth. It guides us and focuses on a future installation of disciples’ baptism which calls for evidence of death to the flesh (self), to Sin, and to the world and buried with Christ. Just as each of the other six baptisms mentioned in the New Testament will lead up to and guide us into understanding what disciples’ baptism is all about, so does the baptism by John.

4. The Baptism by John took place at the close of Israel's relationship to God under the law. Those Jews baptized by John were identified with the Kingdom of The God and Heaven, marking those Israelites out as those who await the coming of Christ (The Messiah) because not all Israel was awaiting The Messiah.

5. The baptism by John took place after the participants demonstrated their repentance by producing the fruits of repentance. So disciples' baptism must take place after demonstrating that death to self, to Sin, and to the world has taken place and life in The Lord Jesus Christ has begun.

    Now at this point we have observed two baptisms of the New Testament where we refer to the Old Testament. One baptism refers to the initiation of a nation under law and the other refers to the conclusion of the nation under law and introduces them to the relationship to The Messiah, The Lord Jesus Christ.

     What will you do as result of learning this truth?

    Condensed Review: I. Baptism by John - unto Repentance and forgiveness of sins.

A. A Particular Message Proclaimed - This was in two aspects: Be repenting and persistently commit trust in The Coming Christ.

B. A Faith Proven (or exercised): By confessing their sins and being baptized, they proved that they committed trust in The Messiah.

C. An Action Performed: They produced fruits worthy of the repentance.

D. A Confession Pronounced: They confessed their sins.

E. The Meaning Projected: Repentance.

F. The Indication Produced: Forgiven of sins.

G. The Identification Professed: They were awaiting the imminent coming of The Christ.

Review of First Two Baptisms

                               Unto Moses                                             By John

Message:        Stand still - Go forward                      Repent and believe (to flee)

Faith:               By their stepping forward to go on      That Messiah was coming

Action:             Walked in the midst of the sea           Evidenced repentance of their sins

Confession:     They are virtually dead                      Confessed their sins

Meaning:         Redemption (Israel redeemed by        Repentance

                        blood and power from the world)        Successfully fled from imminent anger

Indication:       Freedom from bondage and sin           Forgiven of sins

Identification:  Identified Israel as the people of         Identified with Kingdom of Heaven

                        The God to be an Habitation               and marked them as those awaiting

                        for Him                                             The Messiah

Summary Applying Truth Taught by Study of First Two Baptisms

     We are to be God’s peculiar people. It is not sufficient for us to be redeemed by blood, but not to be redeemed by power. The salvation which Christ gives is complete. Since it is complete, I may not say I am saved, if all that I know is that my sins are atoned for by the blood. Some may think, Because I have made a confession of Christ, therefore my sins are forgiven. But if one is not delivered from the power of sin day by day, one is not regenerated because true salvation is complete. Many have fragmented and segmented salvation into stages. Scripture teaches that this cannot be!

   Future salvation from the presence of Sin is going to be a reality only if indeed in the past there has been deliverance from the penalty of Sin and in the present there is deliverance from the power and practice of Sin. Therefore if one can only look back to a time in the past that deliverance was thought to have taken place, but later a departure back into sin persistently occurs, that one has not come to the place where deliverance from the dominion of sin is a reality. This does not mean one who has been regenerated is never going to sin, but that a regenerated one will progressively sin less. A regenerated one may fall and sin, but will not persist in that sin. The God will chasten every son whom He receives. The truly regenerated one will respond positively to The God’s chastening.

   The people in the early congregation of Israel were delivered from the power of sin and from the world behind them as seen in the baptism unto Moses, so that the world had no more dominion and control over them. If one, who claims to be forgiven of sins, is still going back into the world, then it appears that that one has not really been delivered and regenerated and does not have the full salvation The Lord Jesus Christ has purchased with His precious blood and provided for us. If salvation is incomplete it is not the salvation that The Christ of Scripture provided, but a false salvation. So those who claim to have or proclaim a fragmented or fragmentary salvation must have another Jesus of the same kind, another gospel of a different kind, and another spirit of a different kind (2 Cor. 11:4, 13,14). If anyone claims to be saved from the penalty of sin and has not been saved from the power of sin , they haven't really entered into the full Salvation which Scripture teaches that The Lord Jesus Christ wrought. [For a fuller understanding and exposition on this aspect of salvation, go to our website @ www.happyheralds.org and under Leaflets click on FRAGMENTARY OR FULL SALVATION or if already at our website click here.]

   Be sure you have experienced the full salvation which The Lord Jesus Christ has provided for us all so that you may experience The Christ’s own joy day after day!


| | understood   $singular   &plural   /the  0no article  +masculine  ~neuter
[ ]basic meaning  / \ manuscripts divided   ^femine

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Last modified: November 8, 2005